Space Telescope Acronyms List
Advanced Camera for Surveys
- This will consist of three electronic cameras and a complement
of filters and dispersers that detect light from the ultraviolet
at 1200 angstroms to the near infrared at 10,000 angstroms,
with 10 times the efficiency of current instruments; to be
installed during SM3B in 2001.
Aft Shroud Latch Repair (kits) - This kit will fix
door latches in the aft shroud area of the Telescope that
have been damaged by extreme temperature changes and high
Berthing and Positioning System - This is the unit
that holds and maneuvers HST while it is berthed to the orbiter.
The BAPS can orient the telescope at a variety of angles and
can rotate the HST a full 360 degrees to bring any part of
HST within the reach of the astronauts and the RMS, or robot
BAPS Support Post - This post is installed to keep
the BAPS immobile during activities which generate high torques
on the HST, for example reboost.
heavy logistics global transport aircraft designed to provide
massive strategic airlift and express delivery of padded or
oversized cargo as well as passengers; transported HST flight
hardware and personnel to and from GSFC and KSC.
Cosmic Origins Spectrograph - Fourth Generation Spectrometer.
COS is an ultraviolet spectrograph optimized for observing
faint point sources with moderate spectral resolution
Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial - Second Generation
Corrective Optics. COSTAR is not an actual instrument, it
consists of mirrors which refocus the abberated light from
the HST optical system for first generation instruments. Only
FOC utilizes its services today
Digital Fixed Point 2's complement 24-bit word Rockwell computer
module. This is the main computer which controls the attitude
(orientation) of the Hubble Space Telescope.
European Space Agency
Extravehicular activity; outside the spacecraft; activity
in space conducted by suited astronauts. This is also known
as a spacewalk.
Fine Guidance Sensor - Science/Guidance instruments. The
FGS's are used in a "dual-purpose" mode serving to lock on
to "guide stars" which help the telescope obtain the exceedingly
accurate pointing necessary for observation of astronomical
targets. These instruments can also be used to obtain highly
accurate measurements of stellar positions.
Faint Object Camera - First Generation Imaging camera.
FOC is used to image very small field of view, very faint
targets. Last first generation instrument on HST
Faint Object Spectrograph - - First Generation Spectrometer.
FOS was used to obtain spectra of very faint or far away sources.
FOS also had a polarimeter for the study of the polarized
light from these sources
Flight Support System (Structure) - This is the name for
the structure which holds HST and provides power and computer
interfaces while it is berthed to an Orbiter during Servicing.
High Resolution Spectrograph - First Generation Spectrograph.
GHRS was used to obtain high resolution spectra of bright
Goddard Space Flight Center - Greenbelt, Maryland. The
HST Project is run from here.
mission Hubble Space Telescope Orbital Systems Test
(1998) - This mission tested several pieces of equipment in
preparation for SM3A and SM3B.
Hubble Space Telescope
Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, FL - KSC is responsible
Multi-layer insulation. This is the highly reflective
material which is attached to spacecraft to act as a thermal
barrier. It consists of many sheets of 25 µm thick polyester
or polyamide layers sewn together. It is often silver or gold
Aeronautics and Space Administration
NICMOS Cooling System- This mechanical cooler which was
tested during the HOST mission and will be installed during
SM3B will allow NICMOS to resume science operations.
Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer - Second
Generation Imager/Spectrograph. NICMOS is HST's only NIR instrument.
Infrared - Near Infrared light is not visible to human eyes,
but many celestial objects shine brightly with this light.
Typically associated with heat, NIR images show the presence
of molecules and complex compounds.
New Outer Blanket Layer - The NOBL are stainless steel
panels covered with a protective thermal coating. These panels
fit over existing, degraded insulation on Hubble's exterior
surface, to control Hubble's internal temperature. In 1997,
astronauts on Servicing Mission 2 discovered damaged areas
of insulation and performed temporary repairs. The NOBL will
be permanently mounted
Optical Control Electronics Enhancement Kit
Orbital Replacement Unit / Orbital Replacement Instrument
Since HST was designed to be serviced on-orbit, many of the
systems, and all of the instruments were designed and built
as replaceable units.
Orbital Replacement Unit Carrier - Special boxes which
isolate the delicate instruments and other ORUs from the forces
and vibrations of launch and ascent to orbit.
Rate Sensor Unit - The gyroscopes are part of Hubble's
pointing system. They provide a frame of reference for Hubble
to determine where it is pointing and how that pointing changes
as the telescope moves across the sky. They report any small
movements of the spacecraft to Hubble's pointing and control
system computers. The computers then command the spinning
reaction wheels to keep the spacecraft stable or moving at
a desired rate. The gyroscopes work by comparing Hubble's
motion relative to the axis of the spinning masses inside
the gyroscopes. In the absence of external forces, these axes
remain stable relative to the fixed stars in the sky. By keeping
Hubble fixed relative to these axes, Hubble stays stable relative
to the stars
First HST Servicing Mission, December 1993
Second HST Servicing Mission, February 1997
HST Servicing Mission 3A, December 1999
HST Servicing Mission 3B, planned for 2001
S-band Single-Access Transmitter - This replacement transmitter
uses radio waves to send data to the ground. The older unit
it replaces will be returned to Earth and refurbished for
a later flight
Systems Development and Integration Facility. This building
is located at GSFC. The SSDIF is a 7,989 m2
(86,000 ft2) facility designed
to provide support for the integration and testing of spacecraft
hardware. It is unique in the fact that it contains a 36,816m3
(1.3M ft3) horizontal, unidirectional
flow cleanroom. Additional features include: Automated Data
Processing Area, Shipping/Receiving Area, Flight Hardware
Storage Area, and Precision Cleaning facilities.
Solid State Recorder - Hubble's original data recorders
were mechanical, reel-to-reel tape recorders with many moving
parts that wear out over time. The digital SSR has no moving
parts or tape to break, so it is much more robust. This next-generation
recorder is faster and more reliable, and it can store 10
times as much data as a mechanical recorder
Shell/Shield Repair Fabric - Sheets of flexible, aluminized
Teflon® fabric that fit over the original multi-layer
insulation on Hubble's forward shell and light shield to add
thermal protection. In 1997, astronauts on Servicing Mission
2 discovered damaged areas of insulation and performed temporary
repairs. The SSRF will be permanently mounted over these temporary
Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph - - Second Generation
Imager/Spectrograph. STIS is used to obtain high resolution
spectra of resolved objects. The special ability of STIS is
to simultaneously obtain spectra from many different points
along the target
Space Telescope Operations Control Center - Located at
Goddard Space Flight Center, the STOCC is where all commanding
to the HST originates from.
Space Transportation System - This is the formal name
of the Space Shuttle Program
Space Telescope Science Institute - This institute, located
at Johns Hopkins University, is the home of the HST Scientists.
The STScI is responsible for allocating observing time and
for calibration, data storage, retrieval, and distribution
of science data. STScI also provides software tools for manipulating
United States Air Force
United States Navy
Electrical Systems Test, Hubble high fidelity mock-up trains
astronauts on installation and removal of flight hardware
Voltage/Temperature Improvement Kit - These protect Hubble's
batteries from overcharging and overheating when in safe mode
Wide Field Camera - Wide Field Camera 3. Fourth Generation
Imaging camera. This camera will supplement ACS and guarantee
imaging capability for HST after the fourth Servicing Mission
Wide Field/Planetary Camera. The camera currently in use
is the second-generation instrument WFPC2, installed during
the First Servicing Mission in December 1993. It replaced
WFPC1 and was built with optics to correct for the spherical
aberration of the primary mirror.